This attached screenshoot was my favorite part of the presentation assigned. The historical background provided by Joppe Schaaper was extremely informative, in depth, and well researched. I felt I was given a complete overview of all the essential aspects of historical architecture in Amsterdam. I was particularly interested in his review of immigration and tolerance, and his references to Baruch Spinoza. I have been long fascinated by Spinoza, as he is historically considered the “first modern jew. “Baruch Spinoza can certainly be considered a founding father of Jewish modernity and is thought of today as a forerunner of modern Jewish philosophy. He played an integral role in the intellectual history of the Western world. Yet, he is also notorious heretic in Jewish history, yet Spinoza’s heresy was actually revolutionary. His ideas were influential and far-reaching. Seeing the history of Jewish culture intersect with the history of Amsterdam as a structural city. The role of immigration of peoples from across the globe shaped the city culturally, inspiring the architecture, urban planning, and intricate hydraulic systems.